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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

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在NBA,很少人能防得住罗斯。那么,你可以想象,在罗斯的高中年代,有着和现在一样的NBA身板,要防住他更是天方夜谭。
截至德葡之战,本届世界杯已经结束了12场比赛,场均进球3.42个。预计尼日利亚对阵伊朗的比赛进球数将拉低这个统计,不过,只要本场比赛或随后的美加之战能够斩获至少一球,世界杯就会迎来场均进球三粒的第六天。历史上,平均达到如此进球数的还要追溯到1958年瑞典世界杯,也是贝利横空出世的一届。其中,12支球队在仅仅35场比赛中,场均进球3.6个。
With a growing need for someone to block and tackle Apple’s raiders and (given its tax investigation in Europe) regulators, Mr Cook’s focus on people, strategy and execution — rather than products — finally started to look like an advantage.

去年2月份中国国家旅游局启用一个名为“美丽中国”的标志,意在向海外宣传推广其旅游形象,然而有人讽刺“美丽中国”这一名称与中国城市在严重污染之下那一张张“不太美丽”的照片相比反差太大。希望专家们今后能设计出一个好一点的方案来。
plat平坦+form形状→形状平的地方→平台,月台
China's Internet celebrities are estimated to create a whopping 58 billion market in 2016, far surpassing the 44 billion yuan in box office sales generated last year, according to an industry report.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

家居建材展会与日俱增 人气为何大不如前?

The future is always bright if you are an entrepreneur, and the opportunities to create new ventures based on the digitisation of age-old services has a long way to run.
立场:呼吁进行移民改革
2017年,衡量工业品出厂价格、反映经济活力的主要指标--生产者物价指数(PPI)上涨6.3%,结束了自2012年以来的连续下降态势。2016年PPI下降1.4%。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

MasterCard says its index reflects the interconnectedness of major global cities and tracks the ways in which business and leisure jet-setters spend their money.
正如这届美国政府中一切与贸易有关的事项一样,韩美贸易协定(Korus)的未来也不可避免地引发了激烈辩论。本届政府内部强烈反对退出该协议的是特朗普安全团队,他们认为在一场地缘政治危机期间切断与重要盟友的贸易纽带很可能不是个好主意。美国企业也不支持退出。这两股力量都可能意味着美国政府至少在短期内不会发出任何威胁。但是话又说回来,首尔方面的政治局势也不稳定。韩国新政府是否可能行使自己退出协定的权利呢?
201001/93691.shtml重点单词

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 时间长度:21个月
  • 学区房买卖纠纷多 法官:买卖房屋迁户口 迟延履行需担责
  • 中国政府鼓励向中小规模的借款人放贷,其中很多贷款者没有信用纪录。分析师预计,在金融上表现活跃但没有信贷渠道的中国消费者有5亿之多。
  • 印花地板多为一次性产品 购买地板分清材质很关键
  • 房产大佬支招去库存 农民工市民化+货币政策支持
  • 中国最高纪律监管机构日前表示,去年共有1300名涉嫌经济犯罪的外逃人员回国接受审判,其中腐败官员347人。
    plane

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 楼市信贷终于拧紧 首付贷产品已经全部被取消, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

北京二手房成交量深度下滑 预计“金九”将失色

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

谈谈建筑业国企改革的可能路径与精选标的

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 价格:205万美元(约合人民币1312万元)
    In the near future, a weary Logan (Hugh Jackman) cares for an ailing Professor X (Patrick Stewart) at a remote outpost on the Mexican border. His plan to hide from the outside world gets upended when he meets a young mutant (Dafne Keen) who is very much like him. Logan must now protect the girl and battle the dark forces that want to capture her.
  • 在《醉乡民谣》(Inside Llewyn Davis)中,编剧兼导演乔尔?科恩(Joel Coen)和伊桑?科恩(Ethan Coen)兄弟俩挥之不去的忧伤情绪转化成了令人难忘的戏剧性场面。我觉得我的评论本应澄清,这部关于流行文化牺牲品的悲歌有一种特别的味道;其中一些部分相当阴郁。奥斯卡?伊萨克(Oscar Isaac)在片中出演一位自暴自弃的民谣乐手,宿命般地献身于他的艺术,他的卓越表演令这部影片极其震撼人心。
    3.别理会那些出现在CNN国际频道里、告诉你英国行为规范的打领结的专家。这些家伙通常来历不明,自己住在美国加州,却试图提供一些要么不相干要么过时了的建议。比如说,他们通常会告诉你,英国人喜欢排队;喜欢说对不起,即使有时候并不是他们的错误。而事实上,英国人也喜欢插队,而且还会用咳嗽把排在他们后面的人也吓跑。这取决于天气有多闷热潮湿。
    At age 20, the teen prodigy of "Royals" raised the bar, marrying the massive vistas of electronic music alongside the human-scaled and handmade on her second LP, with help from co-producer Jack Antonoff.
    Compared with an average age of 45, 52-year-old Jack Ma is the oldest among the top 10 IT tycoons.
    《泰晤士高等教育》专刊的编辑菲尔·巴蒂说道:“中国采取了强有力的政策,且背后又有雄厚的资金支持,才能打造这些世界一流的大学。2015年,中国就宣布将实施‘卓越计划',计划在2020年之前打造六所可以跻身世界一流行列的高校。”

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 马光远:高烧后的中国房地产格局悄然巨变
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 审计署:对少缴或欠缴基本养老保险基金问题,整改不宜一刀切

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

China's Ministry of Education (MOE) said at a news conference that most of the world's foreign students who study abroad are from China.
31岁的罗西每天的工作就是计算五角大楼在养老、医疗和教育福利方面未来的成本。但他说,这份工作不仅仅是鼓捣电子表格数据。他还要与其它政府部门进行沟通,并就金融模型与同事举行头脑风暴会议。
他认为,地方政府通过卖地、强拆来追求GDP代价太大,早晚要还。“我愿意用一个政协委员的身份非常严肃地提出问题,我们是不是可以不要那么重视GDP?我们是不是可以选择减缓经济发展的速度?”
morality
说到这一点,你要注意的是,不要影响其他的人。没有人想每隔十分钟就听到你提问一次。如果你实在是不懂的话,可以在课后约上老师再讨论。
这位官员表示,相比其他职位来说,那些对教育背景或工作经历没有特殊要求的职位更受欢迎,近些年报名人数达到数千人的基本上都是这种职位。
absolutely

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 鹈鹕一直在费力的吸引并留下自由球员,他们必须在这个夏天留下朱-霍勒迪,考辛斯的家乡在附近的阿拉巴马,而且他和安东尼-戴维斯是密友,同时,多个令人沮丧和伤病困扰的赛季让鹈鹕一直在失败的循环中摇摆。
  • 销售量价同比增速放缓 10月楼市现降温苗头
  • Over 90 percent of them attended schools in English-speaking countries, such as the US, the UK and Australia, and over 70 percent pursue at least a bachelor's degree, according to the MOE.
    但是Gitanjali的便携发明,可以通过一个与手机app连接的传感器,就得出一个确切、及时的分析。
  • 调控再收紧?兰州房产管理局作补充说明
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 1."The Little Kicks" in Seinfeld Almost Didn't Happen
    完成家庭作业,阅读指定的内容,以及其他的事。在网络上查找关于你的学习主题的内容,在图书馆看看书,再看看还可以学到哪些关于主题的内容。
  • 玛蒂?齐格勒和妈妈梅丽莎以及妹妹麦肯齐(Mackenzie)在好莱坞大道(Hollywood Boulevard)上(图)
    stress
  • 不过无需置疑,软件的收购同时意味着“人才的收购”,雅虎买下的不只是产品,还有产品背后的人。达洛伊西奥如今已是雅虎伦敦分部的全职员工,而他的青春活力以及无可厚非的独特潜质给这个曾经腐朽老旧的科技巨头注入了迫切需要的新鲜活力。雅虎CEO玛丽莎?梅耶尔赞赏他“力求设计的完美和产品的简约”,并称自己“被他的创造活力和坚韧精神所感染”。
    As for the molecular motors, they’re geared up to bring huge potential to the fields of medicine and energy.
  • 节目25 歌曲《风吹麦浪》,李健 孙俪
    The line of prescriptive frames and sunglasses, named “DVF | Made for Glass,” costs upwards of $1,600. Google has already partnered with Luxottica, the eyewear conglomerate behind Ray-Ban and several high-fashion eyewear offerings such as Prada. It also hired fashion executive Ivy Ross, most recently the chief marketing officer of Art.com, to lead its Glass team.
    11月,财新-Markit制造业采购经理人指数(PMI)从10月的51%降至50.8%,接近区分扩张和收缩的50%大关。此前,路透社(Reuters)对经济学家进行调查得出的预测中值曾预计,制造业PMI将降至50.9%。
  • Apple CEO Tim Cook
    Mr. Sissako is both an indispensable political filmmaker and one of the great poets of contemporary cinema. His portrait of life under jihadi rule in northern Mali is brutal and shocking, but also gentle, generous and surprisingly funny. Mr. Sissako does not humanize violent extremists so much as demonstrate that they already belong to the species and reflect part of our common, tragic nature. But his movie also insists that the only effective and ethically serious way to oppose fanaticism is with humanism. Which is to say with irony, with decency and, perhaps above all, with art. (Read the review.)
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 一季度全国城镇新增就业324万人 完成全年目标任务29% shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

家居旺季受期待 8月变身行业“先锋月”

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

全球智能家居市场规模不断扩大

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

地板企业未来发展:专业化与正规化将成为主打

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

房地产冰火两重天 警惕要去库存也要防“泡沫”

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

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  • May the bright and festive glow of New Year candle warm the days all the year through. Hoping you will have a wonderful time enjoying New Year that is happy in every way.
  • 智能家居3.0的正确打开方式:产品做得像空气

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 就这一点而言,他预计美国投资会回升,“因为投资一直太弱——除非在经济衰退期,我们通常不会看到投资增长低于消费增长”。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 他做出了不从事企业战略工作的战略性转变,尽管他自己的学校曾经建议他别从事教育方面的职业,虽然他担任过私人教师。
    The report said families back home receive an average of $200 a month, which makes up 60 percent of the household income.Using the steady flow of remittances, families can buy food, get housing, go to school, access healthcare, improve sanitation, or even invest in a business and have some savings, the report said.
    That Apple could launch a 2,000 yuan ($330) iPhone mini and be competitive with flagship products from Lenovo, Huawei, ZTE and Coolpad.
  • 随着新款iPhone不断刷新自己的发售纪录,库克推出了Apple Watch和Apple Pay等产品,引领苹果进入时尚界和金融界,让这家公司再度焕发出许多人担心已和乔布斯一同逝去的创新精神。苹果今年一年市值的增长,就接近谷歌(Google)的整体市值。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • archery;shooting;triathlon;Modern Pentathlon.
  • 广东短租民宿市场火爆 专家:缺乏政策约束
  • Productivity is the name of the game for entrepreneurs. The good news is that there are thousands of amazing software applications out there, designed to make your life easier. The bad news is that you don’t have time to try thousands of software applications. Which ones are worth your time?

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 楼市局部现回暖 市场分化仍持续
  • Household substance abuse
  • “假期经济”已成过去 常态化营销深挖消费需求
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

长沙家装市场迎战金九 卖场以价格战为主

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 易会满:科创板在发行上市披露等方面做出制度创新
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 公租房违规转租为何屡禁不止
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

The cemetery was first found in July 2007and was excavated by the Xinjiang Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology,with assistance from local authorities. The research team, led by Zhiyong Yu,director of the Xinjiang Archaeological Institute, published the findings in Chinese in the journal Wenwu. The article was recently translated into Englishand published in the journal Chinese Cultural Relics.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

They are beginning to fret far more about insecure contracts, precarious scheduling, low wages and new forms of work via online gig economy platforms such as Uber. The OECD, the influential Paris-based club for rich countries, will publish a “jobs strategy” in 2018 that is likely to put much more emphasis on the quality and inclusiveness of work.
Swyft有50家短信应用合作伙伴,包括Kakao Talk, Facebook Messenger, BlackBerry Messenger和 Line。这种合作让这家只有11个人的小公司能接触到25亿注册用户。随着利用短信应用赚钱的办法不断演化,这家年轻的创业公司已探索出一条可让各大品牌挤进人们聊天领域的生财之道。(财富中文网)
5.Britons love bleak humour: that's why all the hire bikes are branded with the name of a bank currently being investigated for fixing interest rates. It's supposed to be funny.
The TV drama is not based on a novel but the story of a real businesswoman Zhou Ying. Born in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), Zhou was the richest female entrepreneur in Shaanxi province at that time.
n. 能力,容量,容积; 资格,职位
Games are serious business in China. The country's online game market will reach 41 billion yuan by 2012 ($6 billion), accounting for half the global market, according to newly released data from Cnzz.com Inc., a Beijing-based third-party data analysis firm (related report in Chinese here).
The cart-topper's latest track, There's Nothing Holdin' Me Back, saw him beat out the likes of DJ Khaled 's Wild Thoughts ft. Rihanna, as well as Ed Sheeran's smash hit, Shape of You. and Daddy Yankee & Luis Fonsi's record-breaking Despacito.
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说点实在的
只有资产管理公司利润出现上升,同比增长16.64%,至37.17亿元人民币。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

地王们的无奈与隐忧:二线城市调控之剑悬在头顶

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 动物会根据美感做出选择。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • GM Masai Ujiri struck twice to position Toronto for a second trip to the East finals, nabbing Ibaka from the Magic and Tucker from the Suns.
  • 2017年智能家居市场或再迎大爆发
  • n. 家仆,
  • 二线城市频“放风”稳控楼市 接棒一线领涨全国
  • Everyone has both, but people tend to be most attached to their “best” identity — the one that offers the most social status or privileges. Successful professionals, for example, often define their identities primarily through their careers.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 北京:告别福利房 安居梦加速落地
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 幸好这类单曲只是《名誉》这张专辑的一部分。在《Dress》(《连衣裙》)这首歌中,她沉醉于令人激动的新恋情里;在《New Year’s Day》(《新年》)这首歌中,她试着弄明白聚会结束后她还拥有什么。
  • [di'klain]

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

贾跃亭发函回应北京证监局通告

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